Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota on Gut Motility and Constipation

Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota on Gut Motility and Constipation Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the…

Gut microbes linked to brain structure in people with irritable bowel syndrome

Gut microbes linked to brain structure in people with irritable bowel syndrome Research shows for the first time an association between the gut microbiota and the brain regions involved in the processing of sensory information from their bodies. Also, the researchers gained insight into the connections among childhood trauma, brain development and gut microbiome composition. …

Perspective: A Historical and Scientific Perspective of Sugar and Its Relation with Obesity and Diabetes

Perspective: A Historical and Scientific Perspective of Sugar and Its Relation with Obesity and Diabetes Fructose-containing added sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, have been experimentally, epidemiologically, and clinically shown to be involved in the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Here we track this history of intake of sugar as it relates…

One in five surgical weight-loss patients take prescription opioids seven years after surgery

One in five surgical weight-loss patients take prescription opioids seven years after surgery While the proportion of adults with severe obesity using prescription opioids initially declines in the months after bariatric surgery, it increases within a matter of years, eventually surpassing pre-surgery rates of patients using the potentially addictive pain medications, according to new research. …

Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements [Issues and Opinions]

Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements [Issues and Opinions] The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will…

Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents [Nutrition and Disease]

Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents [Nutrition and Disease] Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell–derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in…