Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota on Gut Motility and Constipation

Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota on Gut Motility and Constipation Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the…

Perspective: A Historical and Scientific Perspective of Sugar and Its Relation with Obesity and Diabetes

Perspective: A Historical and Scientific Perspective of Sugar and Its Relation with Obesity and Diabetes Fructose-containing added sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, have been experimentally, epidemiologically, and clinically shown to be involved in the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Here we track this history of intake of sugar as it relates…

Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements [Issues and Opinions]

Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements [Issues and Opinions] The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will…

Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents [Nutrition and Disease]

Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents [Nutrition and Disease] Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell–derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in…

Influence of Diet in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

Influence of Diet in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review Nutrition is considered to be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of the neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease; a systematic review of the literature on the…

Intragastric Lysine Lowers the Circulating Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Mixed-Nutrient Drink without Slowing Gastric Emptying in Healthy Adults [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]

Intragastric Lysine Lowers the Circulating Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Mixed-Nutrient Drink without Slowing Gastric Emptying in Healthy Adults [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions] Background: Lysine is reported to lower the glycemic response to oral glucose in humans and, albeit at high loads, to slow gastric emptying of glucose and decrease food intake…

Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour [Community and International Nutrition]

Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour [Community and International Nutrition] Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in…

A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men [Nutritional Epidemiology]

A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men [Nutritional Epidemiology] Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood…